Personal Dictionary Word #26: Clunky

Word: clunky (adj)

Source Sentence: Only last week, Health and Human Services Secretary Kathleen Sebelius told a Senate panel she doubted that retroactively permitting insurers to sell canceled policies “can work very well since companies are now in the market with an array of new plans. Many have actually added consumer protections in the last three-and-a-half years.” The clunky rollout of the plan has given Republicans a new line of attack ahead of the elections, which they hope will offset the drubbing they took in public opinion over last month’s 16-day partial government shutdown. Officials said letters were going out to insurance companies on Thursday informing them they could continue to sell existing individual policies to current customers for 2014, even in cases of plans that had been ruled inadequate under the new law. (

English Definition: If you describe something as clunky, you mean that it is solid, heavy, and rather awkward.

Korean Definition: (비격식) 투박한

Personal Sentence: Common knowledge says that during the 1990s, China transformed from a clunky, closed, Communist cabal into a powerful, new kind of state with authoritarian rule somewhat balanced by a great deal of economic freedom.


Personal Dictionary Word #25: Vigorous

Word: vigorous (adj)

Source Sentence: In August, the Justice Department’s antitrust division filed a lawsuit to block the merger of American Airlines and US Airways, which would create the world’s largest airline and concentrate 80 percent of the domestic air-travel business in the hands of four companies. This week, the department dropped its opposition after the companies agreed to give up some space at a few airports — hardly sufficient to ensure the vigorous competition in the airline industry needed to keep fares down.

English Definition: Vigorous physical activities involve using a lot of energy, usually to do short and repeated actions.

Synonyms / Antonyms: energetic, weak, lusty

Korean Definition:

1. 활발한; 격렬한

2. 활기찬, 건강한

Personal Sentence: They are leading a very vigorous campaign to get the chairman removed.

Personal Dictionary Word #24: Pathos

Word: pathos (noun)

Source Sentence: In multiplexes aroundthe world, Marvel Studios’ franchises rub shoulders with the X-Men, Hobbit and James Bond films. And increasingly, these genre movies attract classically-trained, heavyweight British actors like Anthony Hopkins, and also Royal Shakespeare Company alumni Sir Kenneth Branagh, Sir Ian McKellen, Sir Patrick Stewart, Dame Judi Dench and Dame Helen Mirren, to name a few. “I guess great Shakespeare actors like McKellen, Dench, Mirren, Branagh and company have the capacity to scale the heights of human emotion that Shakespeare charts in roles like Lear, Hamlet, and Cleopatra,” notes Gregory Doran, artistic director of the UK’s Royal Shakespeare Company. “He challenges an actor to go to the limits of human experience, and find the surprising elements of humor and pathos, the absurd and the pathetic, at the very edges of catastrophe. Perhaps that’s why they have the ability to play the almost superhuman scale that science fiction and fantasy demand.” (

English Definition: Pathos is a quality in a situation, film, or play that makes people feel sadness and pity.

Derivative: pathetic (adj)

Korean Definition: 말・글・연극에서 연민을 자아내는 힘

Personal Sentence: There’s a pathos in his performance which he never lets slide into sentimentality.

Personal Dictionary Word #23: Snarl

Word: snarl (noun, verb)

Source Sentence: “You are a vain, greedy, cruel boy,” snarls Sir Anthony Hopkins as the white-haired and bearded god Odin to his rebellious son in 2011’s Marvel Studios film Thor. “You are an old man and a fool!” howls Thor, played by toned, blond Chris Hemsworth, before he and his mythic hammer are cast out of their celestial home to the doldrums of Earth. That blistering exchange, ripe with Freudian father-son tension, disappointment and bravado, could come straight out of Shakespeare, from a tragedy like King Lear or Hamlet. And Tom Hiddleston’s quest for power in the film and in last year’s Marvel box office hit The Avengers is pure Macbeth. Opening in US cinemas this weekend, Thor: The Dark World is filled with sibling rivalry, hubris and paternal frustration. Once again it shows the lasting influence of William Shakespeare in superhero films and in other big budget fantasy and adventure movies that dominate the big screen. (

English Definition:

verb_When an animal snarls, it makes a fierce, rough sound in its throat while showing its teeth.

noun_A snarl is a disorganized mass of things.

Synonyms / Antonyms: growl, roar

Korean Definition:


1. 개 등이 (이빨을 드러내며) 으르렁거리다

2. (화가 나거나 기분이 나빠서) 으르렁거리다[으르렁거리듯 말하다]


1. (개 등이 이빨을 드러내며) 으르렁거리는 소리

2.  (화가 나거나 기분이 나빠서) 으르렁거림[으르렁거리는 소리]

3. snarl-up (동의어)

4.  (비격식) 뒤얽힌[뒤엉킨] 것

Personal Sentence: She snarled abuse at anyone who happened to walk past.

Personal Dictionary Word #22: Moulder

Word: moulder (verb)

Source Sentence: Last week the world was stunned by the discovery in a Munich apartment of more than 1,400 works of art together worth an estimated $1.3bn. Stored alongside mouldering cereal packets and old cartons of juice, many of the paintings, including unknown masterpieces by Chagall and Matisse, as well as works by Picasso, Otto Dix and Max Beckmann, had been plundered from Jewish families by the Nazis before and during World War II. (

English Definition: If something is mouldering, it is decaying slowly where it has been left.

Synonyms / Antonyms: rot

Korean Definition: (서서히) 썩다

Personal Sentence: The room smelt of disuse and mouldering books.

Personal Dictionary Word #21: Magnitude

Word: magnitude (noun)

Source Sentence: Some residents have expressed anger at the slow speed of the government relief effort but Mr Almendras said authorities had been overwhelmed. “The volume of food packs, the volume of rice, the volume of canned goods is being handled, repacked and transported now – that’s never been done on this magnitude,” he said. “But we accept the fact that our operations are supposed to reach out to everyone – and we will.” (

English Definition: If you talk about the magnitude of something, you are talking about its great size, scale, or importance.

Synonyms / Antonyms: amplitude, vastness, volume

Korean Definition: 

1. (격식) (엄청난) 규모[중요도]

2. (천문) (별의) 광도

3. (지리) 지진 규모

Personal Sentence: You can use order of magnitude when you are giving an approximate idea of the amount or importance of something.

Personal Dictionary Word #20: Cronyism

Word: cronyism (noun)

Source Sentence: The presidential office’s remarks came on the day a Korean newspaper broke the news that cronyism inside the CHA was chronic and that some of its officials had been certified as cultural property repair specialists through preferential terms. According to the report, CHA employees of more than 10 years were exempt from written tests until 2002, when civic activists raised complaints. Retirees with certificates for maintenance and “dancheong,” Korean traditional coloring on wooden structures, were hired by construction or landscaping companies attempting to win bids through their connection with the cultural heritage management office. (

English Definition: If you accuse someone in authority of cronyism, you mean that they use their power or authority to get jobs for their friends.

Korean Definition: (못마땅함) 정실인사

Personal Sentence: The county’s church hierarchy, after all, has been one of his fiercest critics, leading the attacks on his alleged cronyism, corruption and nocturnal carousing.

Personal Dictionary Word #19: Allege

Word: Allege (verb)

Source Sentence: Political tensions escalated Tuesday as opposition parties allied in seeking a special probe into alleged election interference by state agencies, while the ruling party struck back by pushing for a law revision to curb minority obstructionism. The ruling Saenuri Party is reportedly moving to revise the National Assembly act to allow certain bills to be exempted from the rule that requires at least 60 percent of the relevant standing committee members’ approval for passage. (

English Definition: If you allege that something bad is true, you say it but do not prove it.

Synonyms / Antonyms: deny, uphold, assert

Korean Definition: [흔히 수동태로] (격식) (증거 없이) 혐의를 제기하다[주장하다]

Personal Sentence: The procedure should be followed in cases where dishonesty has been alleged.

Personal Dictionary Word #18: Fluctuation

Word: fluctuation (noun)

Source Sentence: Moreover, in the market for hospitality investment, Asia has seen heavy capital investment in Japan, Singapore and China. C&W anticipates that the investment volumes for this year will reach anywhere between $10 billion and $12 billion ― the highest it’s seen since the global financial crisis. “While concerns remain over the fluctuations in exchange rate and expected new supply entering the market in the near future, Seoul’s hotel market is expected to continue to grow in the mid- to long term, thanks to the growing demand from China that is lessening the effects of the decline in demand from the Japanese market,” added Cushman & Wakefield Korea senior manager Jin Soo-hyun. (

English Definition: Quantum fluc
Quantum fluctuation arising from the uncertainty principle
Primordial fluctuations, density variations in the early universe
Universal conductance fluctuations, a quantum physics phenomenon encountered in electrical transport experiments in mesoscopic species
Statistical fluctuations, very important in statistics, statistical mechanics, and thermodynamics
Thermal fluctuations, statistical fluctuations in a thermodynamic variable
An alternative name for Conjuncture, a critical combination of events in economics

Synonyms / Antonyms: mutation

Korean Definition:
1. (방향·위치·상황의) 변동, 오르내림; 파동; (사람·마음의) 동요; [pl.] 성쇠, 흥망(ups and downs)
2. (유전) 개체 변이

Personal Sentence: Don’t worry about tiny fluctuations in your weight.

Personal Dictionary Word #17: Orthopaedic

Word: orthopaedis (adj)

Source Sentence: DEC chairman Salah Saeed likened the destruction in the city of Tacloban, which was particularly badly hit, to that seen after the devastating tsunami of 2004. “There is currently no food, water or electricity. We can only imagine how much worse the situation will be for families living in towns and remote villages,” he said. Sarah Wilson from World Vision said: “Tacloban airport is damaged and it’s very small so it is difficult to get the supplies to people.” The UK medical team, deployed to the country by DfID, is comprised of emergency, orthopaedic and plastic surgeons as well as nurses, physicians and a specialist physiotherapist. (

English Definition: of or relating to the branch of medicine that deals with the skeketal system

Korean Definition: (의학) 정형 외과(학)의

Personal Sentence: He have to get orthopedic surgery in this week.